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WASPADAI KODE-KODE INGREDIENTS MAKANAN KEMASAN



WASPADAI KODE-KODE INGREDIENTS MAKANAN KEMASAN
Posted by: H. Ngatimin Tj.S.Kom, 5/13/2009 4:37:59 AM ( 50 times accessed )

Bismillaahi, Ar-Rahmaani, Ar-Rahiimi

Saat ini kita disuguhi dengan berbagai makanan kemasan yang lezat2 dan berwarna-warni, sampai-sampai kadang-kadang kita lupa bahwa di dalam makanan kemasan itu ditambahkan berbagai bahan tambahan makanan yang bisa jadi berasal dari produk Babi yang bagi para muslim dilarang untuk mengkonsumsinya. Padahal dalam ingredients makanan tersebut hanya ditulis dalam kode-kode atau nama-nama asing.

Pada tabel di bawah ini adalah daftar kode E yang biasa digunakan pada berbagai macam bahan kimia yang akan kita temukan di berbagai makanan kemasan. Waspadailah, Chemical Name yang ditandai dengan bintang (*) dan saya arsir dengan warna kuning (hati-hati), yang merupakan BAHAN SYUBAHAT bagi muslim karena sebagiannya berasal dari produk babi dan bahan yang dilarang lainnya. Semoga Allah melindungi kita dari mengkonsumsi makanan2 yang dilarang-Nya.

Food Additives

Source : http://www.muis.gov.sg/cms/uploadedFiles/CorporateGOV/Halal/Food%20Additives.pdf



E-Code Chemical Name Description Remarks
100 Curcumin (C.I. 75300) Colouring Orange-yellow colouring extracted from the rhizome of a plant of the ginger family called Curcuma longa (turmeric)
E101 Riboflavin/Lactofavin/Vitamin B2 * Colouring/ Vitamin Yellow or orange-yellow colouring manufactured from yeast or other fermenting organisms. May also be synthesised from xylene, ribose or alloxan
102 Tartrazine/FD&C Yellow 5 (C.I. 19140) Colouring Synthetic yellow colouring
104 Quinoline Yellow (C.I. 47005) Colouring Synthetic dull yellow colouring
107 Yellow 2G (C.I. 18965) Colouring Synthetic yellow colouring
110 Sunset Yellow FCF/FD&C Yellow 6 (C.I. 15985) Colouring Synthetic yellow colouring
E120 Cochineal/Carminic acid/Carmines (C.I. 75470) * Colouring Natural red colouring which may be extracted from the bodies of female insects called Dactilopius coccus
122 Carmoisine/Azorubine (C.I. 14720) Colouring Synthetic red colouring
123 Amaranth/FD&C Red 2 (C.I. 16185) Colouring Synthetic purplish red colouring
124 Ponceau 4R/Cochineal Red A (C.I. 16255) Colouring Synthetic red colouring
127 Erythrosine/FD&C Red 3 (C.I. 45430) Colouring Synthetic cherry pink to red colouring
128 Red 2G (C.I. 18050) Colouring Synthetic red colouring
129 Allura Red AC/Food Red 17/FD&C Red 40 (C.I. 16035) Colouring Synthetic red colouring
131 Patent Blue V (C.I. 42051) Colouring Synthetic dark bluish-violet colour
132 Indigo Carmine/Indigotine/FD&C Blue 2 (C.I. 73015) Colouring Synthetic blue colouring
133 Brilliant Blue FCF/FD&C Blue 1 (C.I. 42090) Colouring Synthetic blue colouring
E140 Chlorophyll (C.I. 75810) * Colouring Natural olive to dark green colouring found in many plants. Solvents such as ethanol are used in the extraction of chlorophyll
E141 Copper Complexes of Chlorophyll (C.I. 75810) * Colouring Olive-green colouring which is derived from the substitution of magnesium ion in chlorophyll with copper
142 Green S/Acid Brilliant Green BS/Food green S/Lissamine green (C.I 44090) Colouring Synthetic green colouring
150 Caramel Colouring Dark brown colouring prepared by the controlled heat treatment of carbohydrates (e.g. glucose syrup, sucrose)
151 Brilliant Black BN (C.I. 28440) Colouring Synthetic black colouring
E153 Carbon Black/Vegetable Carbon * Colouring Black colouring which may be prepared from animal charcoal or vegetable sources. The commercial source is mainly from plant material
154 Brown FK/Food Brown Colouring Synthetic brown colouring
155 Brown HT/Chocolate Brown HT (C.I. 20285) Colouring Synthetic brown colouring
E160a Alpha-/Beta-/Gamma-Carotene (C.I. 75130) * Colouring Orange-yellow colouring which is naturally found in many plants including in carrots. May be commercially synthesised in the laboratory
E160b Annatto/Bixin/Norbixin (C.I. 75120) * Colouring Yellow to peach colouring naturally found in the pericarp (seed coat) of the Annato tree. May be extracted by means of water-soluble or oil-soluble methods
E160c Capsanthin/Capsorubin/Paprika extract * Colouring Red to orange colouring prepared by solvent extraction of the fruit pods and seeds of Capsicum annuum
E160d Lycopene (C.I. 75125) * Colouring Natural red colouring extracted from tomatoes
E160e Beta-apo-8'-carotenal/Beta-8'-apocarotenal * Colouring Synthetic orange to yellowish-red colouring
E160f Ethyl ester of Beta-apo-8-carotenoic acid * Colouring Synthetic orange to yellow colouring
E161a Flavoxanthin * Colouring Yellow colouring which is a derivative of carotene (E160a). May contain other substances such as oils and fats derived from the source material
E161b Lutein * Colouring Natural yellow to reddish colouring taken from plant extract. May also be obtained from the same source as chlorophyll (E140)
E161c Cryptoxanthin * Colouring Yellow colouring present in plants, orange rind, egg yolk and butter
E161d Rubixanthin * Colouring Yellow colouring present in rosehips
E161e Violaxanthin * Colouring Yellow colouring taken from plants e.g. yellow pansies
E161f Rhodoxanthin * Colouring Yellow colouring found in the seeds of the yew tree
E161g Canthaxanthin (C.I. 40850) * Colouring Orange colouring isolated from some mushrooms. May be commercially produced as part of the synthesis of carotene (E160a)
E162 Beet Red/Betanin/Betanidin Colouring Deep purplish-red colouring extracted from beetroot
E163 Anthocyanins * Colouring Red, blue colouring extracted from grape-skin extract and/or red cabbage by means of water, methanol or ethanol
E170 Calcium Carbonate/Chalk (C.I. 77220) * Inorganic colouring May be extracted from naturally occurring white mineral or animal bones
171 Titanium Dioxide (C.I. 77891) Inorganic colouring White colouring prepared from naturally occurring mineral ilmenite
172 Iron Oxides/Red: 77491/Black: 77499 (Yellow: C.I. 77492) Inorganic colouring Yellow, red, orange, brown and black colouring from naturally occurring pigments or iron
173 Aluminium (C.I. 77000) Inorganic colouring Naturally occurring metallic colour from bauxite
174 Silver (C.I. 77820) Inorganic colouring Metallic colour from naturally occurring metal
175 Gold (C.I. 77480) Inorganic colouring Metallic colour from naturally occurring metal
180 Pigment Rubine/Lithol Rubine BK (C.I. 15850) Inorganic colouring Synthetic red colouring
200 Sorbic Acid Preservative Naturally occurring in some fruits. May be synthetically manufactured from ketene
201 Sodium Sorbate Preservative Manufactured by neutralisation of sorbic acid (E200)
202 Potassium Sorbate Preservative Manufactured by neutralisation of sorbic acid (E200)
203 Calcium Sorbate Preservative Manufactured by neutralisation of sorbic acid (E200)
210 Benzoic Acid Preservative Naturally occurring in many edible berries, fruits and vegetables. May also be synthetically produced
211 Sodium Benzoate Preservative Sodium salt of benzoic acid (E210)
212 Potassium Benzoate Preservative Potassium salt of benzoic acid (E210)
213 Calcium Benzoate Preservative Calcium salt of benzoic acid (E210)
214 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate/Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Preservative Manufactured from benzoic acid (E210)
215 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Sodium Salt/Sodium ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate Preservative Manufactured from benzoic acid (E210)
216 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate/Propylparaben Preservative Manufactured from benzoic acid (E210)
217 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Sodium Salt Preservative Manufactured from benzoic acid (E210)
218 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate/Methylparaben Preservative Manufactured from benzoic acid (E210)
219 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, Sodium Salt Preservative Manufactured from benzoic acid (E210)
220 Sulphur Dioxide Preservative Manufactured chemically by the combustion of sulphur or gypsum
221 Sodium Sulphite Preservative Sodium salt of sulphurous acid
222 Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite/Sodium Bisulphite Preservative Sodium salt of sulphurous acid
223 Sodium Metabisulphite Preservative Sodium salt of sulphurous acid
224 Potassium Metabisulphite/Potassium Pyrosulphite Preservative Potassium salt of sulphurous acid
225 Potassium Sulphite Preservative Potassium salt of sulphurous acid
226 Calcium Sulphite Preservative Calcium salt of sulphurous acid
227 Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite/Calcium Bisulphite Preservative Calcium salt of sulphurous acid
230 Biphenyl/Diphenyl Preservative Synthetically produced by action of heat on benzene
231 2-Hydroxybiphenyl Preservative Manufactured from phenyl ether or dibenzofuran
232 Sodium Biphenyl-2-yl-oxide Preservative Synthetically produced
233 2-(Thiazol-4-yl) Benzimidazole Preservative Chemically synthesised
E234 Nisin * Preservative Produced by the growth of a bacterium called Streptococcus lactis.
E235 Natamycin/Pimaricin * Preservative Produced by the growth of a bacterium called Strepmyces natalensis
236 Formic Acid Preservative Produced commercially by heating carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide under pressure and decomposing the resulting sodium formate with sulphuric acid
237 Sodium Formate Preservative Sodium salt of formic acid (E236)
238 Calcium Formate Preservative Calcium salt of formic acid (E236)
239 Hexamine Preservative Manufactured from formaldehdye and ammonia
249 Potassium Nitrite Preservative Potassium salt of nitrous acid
250 Sodium Nitrite Preservative Manufactured from sodium nitrate by bacterial or chemical actions
251 Sodium Nitrate Preservative Naturally occurring mineral
E252 Potassium Nitrate/Saltpetre * Preservative Naturally occurring mineral. May also be artificially produced from vegetable material and waste animal
E260 Acetic Acid * Food Acid Commercially manufactured by the action of methanol and carbon monoxide. The acetic acid in vinegar may be produced by the action of bacterium Acetobacter on alcohol
261 Potassium Acetate Food Acid Potassium salt of acetic acid (E260)
262 Sodium Acetate Food Acid Sodium salt of acetic acid (E260)
263 Calcium Acetate Food Acid Calcium salt of acetic acid (E260)
264 Ammonium Acetate Food Acid Ammonium salt of acetic acid (E260)
E270 Lactic Acid * Food Acid Commercially produced by heat treatment of carbohydrate, such as whey, and fermented by bacteria such as Bacillus acidilacti, Lactobacillus delbueckii or L. bulgaricus
E280 Propionic Acid * Preservative May be commercially derived from natural gas or from wood pulp waste liquor by the fermentation activity of Propionibacteria
E281 Sodium Propionate * Preservative Sodium salt of propionic acid (E280)
E282 Calcium Propionate * Preservative Calcium salt of propionic acid (E280)
E283 Potassium Propionate * Preservative Potassium salt of propionic acid (E280)
290 Carbon Dioxide Propellant Naturally occuring. May also be produced by way of fermentation or acid-carbonate reaction
296 Malic Acid (DL- or L-) Food Acid Commercially synthesised by means of heating malic with sulphuric acid
E297 Fumaric Acid * Food Acid Commercially prepared by glucose fermentation using fungi such as Rhizopus nigricans
E300 L-Ascorbic Acid/Vitamin C * Antioxidant/ Vitamin Occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables. May be synthesised from the hydrogenation of glucose to sorbitol and its eventual conversion to ascorbic acid. May also be biologically synthesised through means of fermentation
301 Sodium Ascorbate Antioxidant/ Vitamin Synthetic sodium salt of ascorbic acid (E300)
302 Calcium Ascorbate Antioxidant/ Vitamin Synthetic calcium salt of ascorbic acid (E300)
303 Potassium Ascorbate Antioxidant/ Vitamin Synthetic potassium salt of ascorbic acid (E300)
E304 Ascorbyl Palmitate * Antioxidant/ Vitamin Ascorbic acid ester comprising ascorbic acid and palmitic acid
306 Tocopherol Concentrate, Mixed/Vitamin E Antioxidant/ Vitamin Extracts from soya bean oil, rice germ, wheat germ, maize and green leaves
307 Synthetic Alpha-Tocopherol Antioxidant/ Vitamin Manufactured by chemical synthesis
308 Synthetic Gamma-Tocopherol Antioxidant/ Vitamin Manufactured by chemical synthesis
309 Synthetic Delta-Tocopherol Antioxidant/ Vitamin Manufactured by chemical synthesis
310 Propyl Gallate Antioxidant Manufactured from gallic acid found in the tannins of nut galls. May also be produced from the hydrolysis of tannase, which may occur in spent fungal broth
311 Octyl Gallate Antioxidant Manufactured from gallic acid found in the tannins of nut galls. May also be produced from the hydrolysis of tannase, which may occur in spent fungal broth
312 Dodecyl Gallate Antioxidant Manufactured from gallic acid found in the tannins of nut galls. May also be produced from the hydrolysis of tannase, which may occur in spent fungal broth
E317 Erythorbic Acid/Iso-ascorbic Acid * Antioxidant Commercially produced from sucrose by fermentation with Penicillium sp.
E318 Sodium Erythorbate/Sodium Iso-Ascorbate * Antioxidant Sodium salt of erythorbic acid (E317)
319 tert-Butylhydroquinone/TBHQ Antioxidant Derived from petroleum
E320 Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) * Antioxidant Commercially prepared from p-methoxyphenol and isobutene
E321 Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) * Antioxidant Prepared synthetically from p-cresol and isobutylene
E322 Lecithins * Emulsifier/ Antioxidant Obtained from animal or vegetable materials through physical procedures. Most lecithin are commercially obtained from soya beans
E325 Sodium Lactate * Food Acid Sodium salt of lactic acid (E270)
E326 Potassium Lactate * Food Acid Potassium salt of lactic acid (E270)
E327 Calcium Lactate * Food Acid Calcium salt of lactic acid (E270)
E328 Ammonium Lactate * Food Acid Ammonium salt of lactic acid (E270)
E329 Magnesium Lactate * Food Acid Magnesium salt of lactic acid (E270)
E330 Citric Acid * Food Acid Commercially prepared by the fermentation of molasses with fungal strains of Aspergillus niger. May also be isolated from pineapple by-products and low-grade lemons
E331 Sodium Citrates * Food Acid Sodium salt of citric acid (E330)
E332 Potassium Citrates * Food Acid Potassium salt of citric acid (E330)
E333 Calcium Citrates * Food Acid Calcium salt of citric acid (E330)
E334 Tartaric Acid * Food Acid Most commercially available tartaric acid is manufactured as a by-product of the wide industry. May also be extracted from tamarind pulp
E335 Sodium Tartrate * Food Acid Sodium salt of tartaric acid (E334)
E336 Potassium Tartrate/Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate/Cream of Tartar * Food Acid By-product of the wine industry
E337 Potassium Sodium Tartrate * Food Acid Derivative of tartaric acid (E334)
338 Phosphoric Acid/Orthophosphoric Acid Miscellaneous Manufactured from phosphate ore
339 Sodium Phosphates Mineral Salt Sodium salt of phosphoric acid (E338)
340 Potassium Phosphates Mineral Salt Potassium salt of phosphoric acid (E338)
341 Calcium Phosphates Mineral Salt Calcium salt of phosphoric acid (E338)
343 Magnesium Phosphates Mineral Salt Naturally occurring mineral
350 Sodium Malate/Sodium Hydrogen Malate Food Acid Sodium salt of malic acid (E296)
351 Potassium Malate Food Acid Potassium salt of malic acid (E296)
352 Calcium Malate/Calcium Hydrogen Malate Food Acid Calcium salt of malic acid (E296)
E353 Metatartaric Acid * Sequestrant Prepared from tartaric acid (E334)
355 Adipic Acid/Hexanedioic Acid Buffer Commercially produced by oxidising cyclohexanol with concentrated nitric acid
357 Potassium Adipate Buffer Potassium salt of adipic acid (E355)
E363 Succinic Acid * Buffer/ Food Acid* Commercially prepared from acetic acid (E260)
E365 Sodium Fumarate * Food Acid Sodium salt of fumaric acid (E297)
E366 Potassium Fumarate * Food Acid Potassium salt of fumaric acid (E297)
E367 Calcium Fumarate * Food Acid Calcium salt of fumaric acid (E297)
370 1,4-Heptonolactone Sequestrant Prepared from hydroxycarboxylic acid
375 Niacin/Nicotinic Acid/Nicotinamide Vitamin Commercially prepared by the oxidation of nicotine with concentrated nitric acid
E380 Triammonium Citrate * Buffer Ammonium salt of citric acid (E330)
E381 Ammonium Ferric Citrate * Dietary Supplement Prepared from citric acid (E330)
385 Calcium Disodium EDTA Chelating Agent Synthetically prepared
400 Alginic Acid Vegetable Gum Extracted from brown seaweeds such as the species of Laminaria, Macrocystis and Ascophyllum
401 Sodium Alginate Vegetable Gum Sodium salt of alginic acid (E400)
402 Potassium Alginate Vegetable Gum Potassium salt of alginic acid (E400)
403 Ammonium Alginate Vegetable Gum Ammonium salt of alginic acid (E400)
404 Calcium Alginate Vegetable Gum Calcium salt of alginic acid (E400)
405 Propane-1,2-Diol Alginate/Propylene Glycol Alginate/Alginate Ester Vegetable Gum Propylene glycol ester of alginic acid (E400)
406 Agar/Agar-Agar/Japanese Isinglass Vegetable Gum Extracted from red seaweeds such as the Gelidium amansii. May also be taken from members of the related red algae Rhodophyceae
407 Carrageenan/Irish Moss Vegetable Gum Occurs naturally in red seaweeds belonging to the Gigartinaceae, Solieriaceae, Hypnaceae and Furcellariaceae families
410 Locust Bean Gum/Carob Bean Gum Vegetable Gum Taken from the Locust or Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua), which is an evergreen tree belonging to the Leguminoseae or pea family
412 Guar Gum Vegetable Gum Extracted from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, or C. psoraloides, a member of the pea family
413 Tragacanth/Gum Tragacanth Vegetable Gum Extracted from the trunk and branches of Astragalus gummifier and other species of the pea family
414 Acacia/Gum Arabic Vegetable Gum Occurs naturally in the stems and branches of Acacia senegal and members of the pea family
E415 Xanthan Gum/Corn Sugar Gum * Vegetable Gum Produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate using a bacterium known as Xanthomonas campestris
416 Karaya Gum/Sterculia Gum Vegetable Gum Occurs naturally in the trunk and stem of the tree Sterculia urens
E420 Sorbitol/Sorbitol Syrup * Humectant Commercially produced from glucose by hydrogenation or electrolytic reduction
421 Mannitol/Manna Sugar Humectant Prepared from seaweed or manna, the dried exudate of Fraxinus ornus. May be commercially prepared by the hydrogenation of invert sugar, monosaccharides and sucrose
E422 Glycerol/Glycerin * Humectant Industrial by-product in the manufacture of soaps, candles and fatty acids from oils and fats. May also be synthesised from propylene or by the fermentation of sugars
E430 Polyoxyethylene (8) Stearate * Emulsifier Synthesised using stearic acid (E570)
E431 Polyoxyethylene (40) Stearate * Emulsifier Synthesised using stearic acid (E570)
E432 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monolaurate/Polysorbate 20/Tween 20 * Emulsifier Lauric ester of sorbitol and sorbitol anhydride
E433 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Mono-Oleate/Polysorbate 80/Tween 80 * Emulsifier Oleic ester of sorbitol and sorbitol anhydride
E434 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monopalmitate/Polysorbate 40/Tween 40 * Emulsifier Palmitate ester of sorbitol and sorbitol anhydride
E435 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monostearate/Polysorbate 60/Tween 60 * Emulsifier Stearic acid ester of sorbitol and sorbitol anhydride
E436 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Tristearate/Polysorbate 65/Tween 65 * Emulsifier Stearic acid ester of sorbitol and sorbitol anhydride
440a Pectin Stabiliser/ Thickening Agent Apple residues and orange pith are commercial sources of pectin
440b Amidated Pectin Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Derived from the treatment of pectin (E440a) with ammonia
E441 Gelatine * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Obtained by boiling animal skin (usually cattle or pig's), ligaments, bones, or any tissue that contains collagen
442 Ammonium Phosphatides/Emulsifier YN Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared synthetically
450 Sodium and Potassium Metaphosphates, Polyphosphates and Pyrophosphates Mineral Salt Sodium and potassium salt of phosphoric acid (E338)
460 Microcrystalline Cellulose/Powdered Cellulose Anticaking Agent Prepared from the cellulose component of plant cell wall
461 Methylcellulose/Cologel/Methocel Vegetable Gum Prepared from plant cellulose
463 Hydroxypropylcellulose Vegetable Gum Prepared from plant cellulose
464 Hydroxypropyl-Methylcellulose Vegetable Gum Prepared from plant cellulose
465 Ethylmethylcellulose Vegetable Gum Prepared from plant cellulose
466 Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose/CMC Vegetable Gum Prepared from plant cellulose
469 Sodium Caseinate Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Derived from the protein of cow's milk
E470 Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from fatty acids
E471 Mono-and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Commercially prepared from glycerin (E422) and fatty acids
E472 Various Esters of Glycerol * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from esters of glycerol and fatty acids
E473 Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from esters of glycerol and sucrose
E474 Sucroglycerides * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared by the action of sucrose on natural triglycerides (from lard, tallow, palm oil, etc)
E475 Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared in the laboratory
E476 Polyglycerol Esters of Polycendensed Fatty Acids of Castor Oil/Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from castor oil and glycerol esters
E477 Propane-1,2-Diol Esters of Fatty Acids * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from propylene glycol
E481 Sodium Stearoyl-2-Lactylate * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from lactic acid (E270)
E482 Calcium Stearoyl-2-Lactylate * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from lactic acid (E270)
E483 Stearyl Tartrate * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared from tartaric acid (E334)
E491 Sorbitan Monostearate * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared synthetically from stearic acid (E570) and sorbitol (E420)
E492 Sorbitan Tristearate/Span 65 * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared synthetically from stearic acid (E570) and sorbitol (E420)
E493 Sorbitan Monolaurate/Span 20 * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared synthetically from sorbitol (E420) and lauric acid
E494 Sorbitan Monooleate/Span 80 * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared synthetically from sorbitol (E420) and oleic acid
E495 Sorbitan Monopalmitate/Span 40 * Emulsifier/ Stabiliser Prepared synthetically from sorbitol (E420) and palmitic acid
500 Sodium Carbonate/Sodium Bicarbonate/Baking Soda Mineral Salt Synthetically prepared. May also be manufactured by the Solvay process or electrolytically from sea water
501 Potassium Carbonate/Potassium Hydrogen Carbonate Mineral Salt Prepared by saturating a concentrated solution of potassium carbonate with carbon dioxide
503 Ammonium Bicarbonate/Ammonium Hydrogen Carbonate Mineral Salt Prepared by passing excess carbon dioxide through concentrated ammonia water
504 Magnesium Carbonate Mineral Salt May be prepared by mixing boiling concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and sodium carbonate
507 Hydrochloric Acid Food Acid Industrially produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and sulphuric acid
508 Potassium Chloride Salt Substitute Naturally occurs as a saline residue associated with rock salt
509 Calcium Chloride Mineral Salt Obtained as a by-product of the Solvay process and is also a product from natural salt brines
510 Ammonium Chloride Flour Treatment Agent Synthetically prepared
511 Magnesium Chloride Firming Agent Prepared from magnesium ammonium chloride hexahydrate, in the presence of hydrochloric acid
513 Sulphuric Acid Food Acid Commercially prepared by the 'contact' or 'chamber' process
514 Sodium Sulphate Diluent Naturally occurring
515 Potassium Sulphate Salt Substitute Naturally occurring
516 Calcium Sulphate Flour Treatment Agent Naturally occurring
518 Magnesium Sulphate Dietary Supplement/ Firming Agent Naturally occurring
519 Cupric Sulphate/Copper Sulphate Preservative/ Colour Fixative Industrially prepared by spraying hot dilute sulphuric acid on to scrap copper in a lead-lined tower
524 Sodium Hydroxide Neutralising Agent Prepared by electrolysis from brine, or precipitated from sodium carbonate and lime solution
525 Potassium Hydroxide Oxidising Agent Industrially prepared by electrolysis of potassium chloride
526 Calcium Hydroxide Neutralising Agent Prepared by the hydration of lime
527 Ammonium Hydroxide Alkali Prepared from ammonia gas
528 Magnesium Hydroxide Alkali Commercially prepared from magnesite ores
529 Calcium Oxide Alkali Prepared from limestone
530 Magnesium Oxide Alkali Commercially prepared from magnesite ores
535 Sodium Ferrocyanide Anticaking Agent Synthetically produced
536 Potassium Ferrocyanide Anticaking Agent Commercially prepared as a by-product in the purification of coal gas
540 Dicalcium Diphosphate Buffer Naturally occurring mineral. May also be synthetically produced
541 Sodium Aluminium Phosphate Aerator/ Emulsifying Salt Prepared from phosphoric acid (E338)
E542 Edible Bone Phosphate/Bone Meal * Anticaking Agent Extract from animal bones
E544 Calcium Polyphosphates * Emulsifying Salt Calcium salts of polyphosphoric acid
545 Ammonium Polyphosphates Emulsifying Salt Ammonium salts of polyphosphoric acid
551 Silicon Dioxide/Silica Salt Anticaking Agent Rock-forming mineral and sand which is composed mainly of quartz or flint
552 Calcium Silicate Anticaking Agent Commercially prepared from lime and diatomaceous earth
553a Magnesium Silicate/Magnesium Trisilicate Anticaking Agent Synthetic compound of magnesium oxide and silicon dioxide. May also be prepared from sodium silicate and magnesium sulphate
553b Talc Anticaking Agent Naturally occurring mineral
554 Aluminium Sodium Silicate/Sodium Aluminosilicate Anticaking Agent Prepared synthetically from quartz and gibbsite
556 Aluminium Calcium Silicate Anticaking Agent Naturally occurring mineral
558 Bentonite Anticaking Agent Naturally occurring
559 Kaolin Anticaking Agent Naturally occurring
E570 Stearic Acid * Anticaking Agent Naturally occurring fatty acid found in all animal fats and vegetable oils. May be prepared synthetically for commercial use
E572 Magnesium Stearate * Anticaking Agent Magnesium salt of stearic acid (E570)
E575 Glucono Delta-Lactone * Sequestrant Prepared by the oxidation of glucose
576 Sodium Gluconate Sequestrant Sodium salt of gluconic acid
577 Potassium Gluconate Sequestrant Potassium salt of gluconic acid
578 Calcium Gluconate Sequestrant Calcium salt of gluconic acid
579 Ferrous Gluconate Colouring/ Flavouring Prepared from barium gluconate and ferrous sulphate
E620 L-Glutamic Acid * Flavour Enhancer Commercially prepared by the fermentation of carbohydrate by a bacterium e.g. Micrococcus glutamicus
E621 Monosodium Glutamate/MSG * Flavour Enhancer Sodium salt of glutamic acid (E620)
E622 Monopotassium Glutamate * Flavour Enhancer Potassium salt of glutamic acid (E620)
E623 Calcium Glutamate * Flavour Enhancer Calcium salt of glutamic acid (E620)
E627 Disodium Guanylate * Flavour Enhancer Sodium salt of guanylic acid, a widely occurring nucleotide found in yeast extract and sardines. May be synthetically prepared from commercial use
E631 Disodium Inosinate * Flavour Enhancer Sodium salt of inosinic acid, found in meat extract and sardines
E635 Sodium 5'-Ribonucleotide * Flavour Enhancer Mixture of disodium guanylate (E627) and disodium inosinate (E631)
636 Maltol Flavour Enhancer Occurs naturally in the bark of larch trees, pine needles and roasted malt. May also be obtained by the alkaline hydrolysis of streptomycin salt
637 Ethyl Maltol Flavour Enhancer Prepared from maltol (E636)
900 Dimethylpolysiloxane/Dimethicone Antifoaming Agent A mixture of liquid dimethylpolysiloxane and silicon gel or silicon dioxide
E901 Beeswax * Glazing Agent Naturally occurring from bee honeycomb. White beewax is bleached and purified
903 Carnauba Wax Glazing Agent Obtained from the surface of leaves of Copernicia cerifera, a Brazilian wax palm
E904 Shellac * Glazing Agent Obtained from the resin produced by lac insect (Laccifer lacca)
905 Mineral Oil/Petrolatum Glazing Agent Derived from petroleum
907 Refined Microcrystalline Wax Glazing Agent Derived from petroleum
E920 L-Cysteine Hydrochloride * Flour Treatment Agent Manufactured from animal hair and chicken feathers
924 Potassium Bromate Flour Treatment Agent Synthetically produced
925 Chlorine Preservative/ Bleaching Agent Commercially produced by electrolysis
926 Chlorine Dioxide Bleaching Agent/ Improving Agent Synthetically prepared
927 Azodicarbonamide/Azoformamide Improving Agent Synthetically prepared
928 Benzoyl Peroxide/Dibenzoyl Peroxide Bleaching Agent Synthetically prepared
931 Nitrogen Propellant Industrially produced by the reduction of ammonia or by the fractional distillation of liquid air
932 Nitrous Oxide Propellant Industrially produced by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate
950 Acesulphame Potassium/Sunett Artificial Sweetener Potassium salt of 6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4(3H)-1,2,2-dioxide
E951 Aspartame/Nutrasweet * Artificial Sweetener Commercially produced by combining two amino acids together, namely L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid
952 Cyclamic and its Calcium and Sodium Salts Artificial Sweetener Manufactured by many different methods
954 Saccharin and its Calcium and Sodium Salts Artificial Sweetener Manufactured by many different methods
957 Thaumatin Artificial Sweetener Derived from an African plant called Thaumococcus danielli
E965 Hydrogenated Glucose Syrup * Humectant Derived from starches, which originate from many different sources, and broken down by enzymes and water to form glucose, oligosaccharides, followed by maltitol and sorbitol (E420)
967 Xylitol Sweetener Commercially produced as a waste product of the pulp industry
E1200 Polydextrose * Miscellaneous Manufactured from glucose, citric acid and sorbitol
1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Miscellaneous Commercially produced from acetylene, hydrogen, formaldehyde and ammonia
1202 Polyvinyl Polypyrrolidone Miscellaneous It is the insolule form of polyvinylpyrrolidone (E1201)
1400 Dextrin Thickener May be produced by the dry heating of unmodified starch or in the presence of acids and buffers. Starches used are mainly from corn (maize) and tapioca
1403 Bleached Starch Thickener May be obtained by treating native starch with various chemicals including hydrogen peroxide, sodium chlorite or sulphur dioxide
1404 Oxidised Starch Thickener Produced by treating native starch with sodium hypochlorite
E1405 Enzyme-treated Starch * Thickener Produced by subjecting corn starch to acid-enzyme treatment to yield glucose, maltose and higher oligosaccharides
1410 Monostarch Phosphate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with orthophosphoric acid, sodium or potassium orthophosphate, or sodium tripolyphosphate
1412 Distarch Phosphate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride
1413 Phosphated Distarch Phosphate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with phosphate, and dually stabilised with a 'monosubstituent group' of phosphate
1414 Acetylated Distarch Phosphate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with sodium trimetaphosphate or phosphorus oxychloride, and stabilised with a 'monosubstituent group' of acetate
1420 Starch Acetate Esterified with Acetic Anhydride Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with a mixed anhydride of adipic and acetic anhydride, and stabilised with a 'monosubstituent group' of acetate
1421 Starch Acetate Esterified with Vinyl Acetate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with monosubstituent groups of vinyl acetate
1422 Acetylated Distarch Adipate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with a mixed anhydride of adipic and acetic anhydride
1440 Hydroxypropyl Starch Thickener Produced by treating native starch with the hydroxypropyl group
1442 Hydroxypropyl Distarch Phosphate Thickener Produced by the esterification of native starch with phosphate, and stabilised with a monosubstituent hydroxyl group
1450 Starch, Sodium Octenylsuccinate Thickener Produced by treating native starch with an octenylsuccinate half ester monosubstituent group
1505 Triethyl Citrate/Ethyl Citrate Miscellaneous Bitter oily liquid which is soluble in water and can be mixed with alcohol
E1510 Ethyl Alcohol/Ethanol * Miscellaneous Produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates. May also be obtained from ethylene, acetylene or liquors from waste sulphites. Other manufacturing process includes hydrolysis of ethyl sulphate or by the oxidation of methane
E1518 Triacetin/Glycerol Triacetate * Miscellaneous Produced by the acetylation of glycerol
E1520 Propylene Glycol * Miscellaneous Commercially produced from propylene, or by heating glycerol with sodium hydroxide, or by reacting propylene oxide with water

Note: *) Syubhah/Doubtful (either by way of its source or manufacturing process)

Kiat agar Terlihat Lebih Muda



TERLIHAT lebih muda dari usia sebenarnya kerap menjadi idaman para perempuan. Berikut kiat jitu agar terlihat lebih segar, seperti yang dikutip dari allwomenstalk.com:

1. Pintar memilih make-up

Rias wajah merupakan sesuatu yang penting dalam penampilan. Dapat dibayangkan jika Anda memiliki riasan wajah yang tidak sesuai, pastinya penampilan Anda akan jauh dari kata sempurna.

Area mata : pilih eye shadow dengan warna yang ringan seperti warna putih atau kecoklatan. Bubuhkan eyeliner agar mata tampak terlihat lebih jelas.

Bibir : pilihan warna alami untuk bibir dapat menjadi pilihan agar Anda terlihat lebih segar.

2. Kenakan baju dengan warna cerah.

Warna gelap seperti coklat akan semakin membuat Anda terlihat tua. Meski demikian, sepatutnya Anda tetap menjauhkan jenis pakaian yang terlalu terbuka.

3. Konsultasikan gaya rambut yang sesuai kepada penata rambut.

Karena tanpa disadari, potongan rambut juga memberikan peranan terhadap penampilan. Jika Anda sudah terlalu lama memiliki rambut panjang, tidak ada salahnya untuk sedikit merubah tampilan dengan memotongnya.

4. Menjaga bentuk tubuh : usia bukan alasan untuk tidak peduli terhadap bentuk tubuh. Untuk itu olahraga rutin sudah menjadi keharusan. Dengan begitu badan akan menjadi sehat dan terlihat lebih bugar.(*/X-13)

Pentingnya Zat Besi bagi Tubuh

Cukupi Zat Besi saat Diet


DIET kian menjadi bagian dari gaya hidup. Tidak sedikit orang yang mengambil keputusan tersebut demi terciptanya bentuk tubuh ideal, juga manfaat kesehatan lainnya. Mengkonsumsi jenis makanan sehat seperti sayur dan buah masih mendominasi ketika program diet dijalankan. Hal tersebut menyebabkan aktivitas program diet jauh dari konsumsi jenis makanan berbahan daging dan ikan sehingga menyebabkan defisiensi zat besi.

Namun sebenarnya konsumsi daging dan ikan saat diet sangat dianjurkan, karena keduanya mengandung banyak zat besi dari protein hewani yang bermanfaat bagi tubuh. Salah satu penelitian mengungkapkan, kurangnya asupan zat besi saat diet dapat membahayakan kesehatan perempuan. Survei yang dilakukan oleh National Diet and Nutrition Survey, seperempat wanita di Inggris menderita rendahnya asupan zat besi, terutama saat diet.

Studi yang juga dikutip dari indiatimes.com, menyimpulkan bahwa kurangnya mengkonsumsi jenis makanan dengan kandungan zat besi, pada akhirnya akan menimbulkan lesu, kelelahan, dan menurunnya kemampuan dalam menyerap informasi. Untuk memenuhi zat besi dari protein hewani saat diet, Anda dapat mengkonsumsi daging sapi, daging ayam, kerang, juga beragam jenis ikan. (*/OL-06)


Rahasia Pentingnya Zat Besi bagi Perempuan


MESKI penting bagi kaum hawa, ini juga mesti diperhatikan kaum adam. Sementara banyak yang mengontrol dan khawatir atas asupan protein dan karbohidrat sehari-hari, banyak pula yang mengesampingkan bahwa ada satu hal lagi yang penting untuk diperhatikan yakni vitamin dan mineral bagi tubuh seperti zat besi.

Padahal, zat besi penting bagi keseluruhan kesehatan kita. Kekurangan zat besi bisa menyebabkan rasa pusing, tubuh terasa lemas, gangguan pencernaan, dan kelelahan. Maka itu, perempuan terutama yang tengah hamil dan menstruasi membutuhkan lebih banyak zat besi. Begitu juga atlet pelari jarak jauh dan vegetarian.

Maka itulah, muncul perdebatan apakah gaya hidup sebagai vegetarian lebih sehat mengingat kurangnya asupan zat besi. Namun tenang, bagi Anda para vegetarian, zat besi bisa didapatkan dari pada sereal gandum, sayuran daun hijau seperti bayam. Sementara itu, bagi Anda yang bukan vegetarian tentu lebih mudah mendapatkan zat besi seperti pada daging dan ikan. Asupan suplemen vitamin C atau memakan buah yang mengandung vitamin C seperti jeruk juga bisa membantu tubuh lebih cepat dan efektif menyerap zat besi.

Perempuan yang tengah menjalani diet sering kali menghindari makanan mengandung zat besi. Supaya tak kekurangan, Anda bisa menggantinya dengan daging anak domba dan daging sapi tanpa lemak, rendah kalori, dan tinggi zat besi.

Tanpa zat besi, tubuh kita akan kekurangan oksigen. Kondisi itu bisa berujung pada lemahnya sistem vital tubuh kita. Padahal tubuh membutuhkannya untuk memproduksi sel darah merah baru guna menghantarkan oksigen ke paru-paru lalu disebarkan ke seluruh bagian tubuh. Haemoglobin dalam sel darah itu kaya akan zat besi.

Akan tetapi, yang patut dipahami yaitu bukan seberapa banyak zat besi yang disup tubuh kita, tapi seberapa banyak yang mampu terserap tubuh. Kopi dan teh memiliki kandungan zat yang bisa memblokir penyerapan zat besi. Maka itu, hindari meminumnya bersamaan dengan makanan Anda. (Pri/OL-06)

KHASIAT DAUN KEMANGI

http://www.mediaindonesia.com/mediahidupsehat/index.php/read/2012/01/26/4827/3/Kemangi-Ampuh-Tuntaskan-Nyeri-Haid



Kurangi Stres dengan Kemangi

SELAIN tidur malam yang cukup, beragam jenis makanan sehat juga ampuh dalam enyahkan stres. Mulai dari jenis buah, hingga sayuran dapat menjadi pilihan, kemabi adalah salah satunya.

Satu lagi penambah deret variasi bahan makanan pengusir stres, kemangi dengan nama latin Ocimum sanctum ini menjadi salah satu primadona.

Seorang ahli botani, James Duke, PhD, yang juga penulis dari The Green Pharmacy, mengatakan bahwa dalam kemangi terdapat kandungan phytochemical yang ampuh menurunkan kortisol sebagai suatu jenis hormon yang dikeluarkan tubuh ketika ketegangan pemicu stres melanda.

Dikutip dalam health.com, Duke menyebutkan, untuk memaksimalkan kandungan dalam kemangi, Anda dapat menambahkan beberapa lembar daun ke dalam sajian es teh Anda. (*/OL-06)


Kemangi Ampuh Tuntaskan Nyeri Haid


BAGI para perempuan, sepertinya Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) atau sering juga disebut sebagai nyeri sebelum haid, menjadi saat-saat yang menjengkelkan. Bagaimana tidak, akibat keluhan tersebut, banyak perempuan yang mengaku tersita waktunya hanya untuk mengurusi keluhan tersebut.

Banyak cara yang dilakukan, namun belum juga berhasil mengakhiri derita yang dirasa kebanyakan perempuan itu. Seorang penulis The Flexitarian Diet, Dawn Jackson Blatner, RD, yang juga dikutip dalam health.com, mengatakan bahwa mengkonsumsi kemangi saat haid dipercaya dapat mengurangi rasa nyeri perut maupun pinggul, karena kandungan zat besi yang melimpah.

Untuk mendapatkan khasiat penghilang nyeri haid dari kemangi, Anda dapat mengkonsumsinya dengan campuran bahan makanan lain, atau lebih baik dikonsumsi secara mentah sebagai lalapan. (*/OL-06)

Makanan untuk Kulit Sehat

Penulis : Ikarowina Tarigan


Makanan untuk Kulit Sehat

yeeunion.com
MAKANAN yang tepat merupakan salah satu kunci untuk mendapatkan kulit yang lebih sehat, lebih cerah dengan tekstur yang lebih lembut dan lebih sedikit kerutan. Menurut Dr Nicholas Perricone, seorang pakar dermatologi dari Yale University School of Medicine, peremajaan kulit bisa dilakukan dengan program 3 hari penuh mengonsumsi ikan, buah, sayuran dan olive oil. Menurut Perricone, banyak masalah kulit, seperti jerawat, bisa diatasi melalui modifikasi diet. Untuk mendapatkan wajah yang lebih cantik dan sehat, berikut beberapa makanan yang bisa Anda padukan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

1. Sayuran hijau untuk melawan jerawat. Sayuran hijau seperti bayam, kaya akan antioksidan. Selain itu, sayuran hijau juga sumber makanan yang kaya zat besi. Perempuan yang kekurangan besi cenderung lebih mudah mengalami munculnya lingkaran hitam di bawah mata. Sayuarn hijau juga mengandung seng. Dalam sebuah studi dari Swedia ditemukan, pasien-pasien yang cenderung berjerawat mengalami pengurangan jerawat sebanyak 85% setelah 3 bulan menambahkan suplemen seng ke dalam diet mereka. Seng juga membantu memecahkan kolagen yang rusak, sehingga memungkinkan pembentukan kolagen yang baru.

2. Air untuk menjaga kelembaban kulit. Dehidrasi akan membuat kulit terlihat pucat dan kusam. Dan air merupakan solusi terbaik dalam mengatasi masalah kulit yang satu ini. Kulit yang kecukupan air akan terlihat lembab dan montok. Dengan begitu, kerutan-kerutan akan tersamarkan. Untuk melihat hasilnya, pastikan Anda minum 9 gelas air ukuran 200 mililiter setiap hari. Tentunya perlu ditambah jika Anda berolahraga.

3. Minyak sayur atasi kulit kering. Asupan lemak yang cukup merupakan salah satu kunci kulit yang lembut dan lentur. Pakar dermatologi menyatakan, kulit kering merupakan indikasi kurangnya asupan lemak yang baik, seperti lemak yang terdapat dalam sesame oil, kacang dan olive oil. Satu sendok saja sehari, menurut peneliti, akan sangat berpengaruh terhadap kulit kering. Selain itu, menurut pakar dermatologi, asam lemak esensial dalam minyak sayuran akan mengatasi pori yang tersumbat dengan cara mengencerkan minyak yang dikeluarkan dari pori-pori.


4. Tomat matang untuk menjaga kelenturan kulit. Tomat kaya akan antioksidan vitamin A dan C serta komponen anti-kanker. Vitamin C membantu menjaga kulit tetap elastis dan mencegah kerutan. Vitamin A membantu menyembuhkan jerawat baik dari dalam maupun dari luar dengan meningkatkan daya tahan terhadap infeksi.

5. Berries untuk melawan kerutan. Berries merupakan makanan yang kaya polyphenols, antioksidan yang berdasarkan studi dinyatakan bisa memperlambat proses penuaan. Buah lezat ini juga bisa melindungi ingatan jangka pendek dan keseimbangan. Studi-studi menunjukkan, berries mengandung antioksidan 3 kali lebih banyak dibandingkan setumpuk jeruk.

6. Ikan sarden untuk meredakan peradangan. Ikan ini mengandung asam lemak omega-3 yang berfungsi melawan peradangan. Asam lemak esensial ini berfungsi melawan radikal bebas yang merusak kolagen serta membantu menyamarkan kerutan-kerutan di wajah. Selain itu, ikan ini juga mengandung seng yang berfungi menghambat munculnya jerawat. Untuk mendapatkan hasil yang masimal, pakar dermatologi menyarankan Anda untuk mengonsumsi ikan sarden 3 kali seminggu.

7. Melon untuk mengatasi muka kusam. Buah berwarna terang ini kaya akan komponen menyerupai karoten seperti lycopene, yang berfungsi mengurangi kerusakan kolagen yang memicu munculnya kerutan.

8. Kedelai mengatasi jerawat. Baik dalam bentuk alami maupun hasil produk seperti tahu, makanan satu ini sangat baik untuk kulit. Kedelai kaya akan zat kimia seperti estrogen yang bisa mencegah munculnya jerawat. Selain itu, kedelai juga kaya vitamin E yang mempromosikan pertumbuhan sel-sel baru dan menjaga kelembaban kulit.

9. Wortel untuk menghambat kerutan. Wortel kaya beta-karoten yang akan diubah menjadi vitamin A, kunci untuk mencegah kulit kering dan kusam.

10. Oatmeal untuk mengeluarkan racun-racun. Serat yang terkandung dalam oatmeal akan membantu menyaring racun-racun sehingga menghasilkan kulit yang cerah bercahaya.

Kiat Kulit Sehat dengan Konsumsi Beragam Buah


KULIT merupakan salah satu bagian penting penampilan. Dapat dipastikan jika kulit menawan, penampilan akan terlihat semakin sempurna. Dalam sebuah penelitian yang dikutip dalam health.com, menunjukkan bahwa segala sesuatu yang dikonsumsi memiliki efek yang kuat terhadap tubuh, termasuk pada kulit. Berikut deretan buah yang mampu meningkatkan kesehatan bagi kulit Anda :

1. Jeruk : vitamin C yang melimpah pada jeruk membuat jenis buah yang satu ini menjadi salah satu hadiah untuk kulit sehat dengan menangkal radikal bebas. Jeruk juga mengandung bioflavonoid, yang menghasilkan kolagen di kulit, sehingga kulit tampak lebih kencang.

2. Tomat : sudah diketahui sejak lama bahwa kekurangan vitamin A akan menyebabkan keringnya kulit. Sepertinya pilihan lain jatuh pada tomat, kandungan serat dan vitamin A pada tomat membantu dalam perkembangan dan pemeliharaan sel-sel kulit. Selain itu, tomat juga memiliki banyak likopen yang membantu melindungi kulit saat terpapar sinar matahari.

Untuk mendapatkan kulit yang sehat, sertakan jeruk dan tomat dalam menu harian Anda. Ragam buah tersebut dapat dimakan begitu saja sebagai campuran salad buah, atau diolah menjadi jus yang sehat dan menyegarkan. (*/OL-06)


http://www.mediaindonesia.com/mediahidupsehat/index.php/read/2012/02/10/4875/3/Kiat-Kulit-Sehat-dengan-Konsumsi-Beragam-Buah

10 Sumber Protein Rendah Lemak

Penulis : Ikarowina Tarigan

10 Sumber Protein Rendah Lemak


amazonaws.com
PROTEIN dicerna lebih lambat dibandingkan lemak dan karbohidrat sederhana. Karena itu, protein membuat Anda kenyang lebih lama dan menjaga kadar gula darah lebih stabil. Akan tetapi, banyak makanan sumber protein justru kaya lemak. Berikut beberapa sumber protein rendah lemak yang bisa menjadi pilihan Anda.

Sushi

Jika Anda memerlukan makanan kemasan cepat saji, sushi station merupakan tempat yang tepat untuk singgah. Sushi mengandung protein dan serat yang pada umumnya rendah kalori dan lemak.

Telur
Telur merupakan sumber protein dengan kandungan nutrisi terlengkap dibandingkan makanan sumber protein lainnya. Sebutir telur rebus mengandung tujuh gram protein dengan hanya dua gram lemak jenuh. Untuk menghindari lemak jenuh, gunakan putih telur dan buang kuningnya. Studi-studi menemukan, orang-orang yang makan telur dan roti panggang untuk sarapan bisa kenyang lebih lama dan mengonsumsi lebih sedikit kalori sepanjang hari. Telur memang mengandung sejumlah kolesterol. Tapi, lusinan studi telah menunjukkan bahwa lemak jenuh (bukan kolesterol dari makanan) yang meningkatkan kadar kolesterol darah.

Sirloin
Pilihlah sirloin, daging sapi paling rendah lemak. Tiga ons sirloin mengandung 196 kalori dan 10 gram lemak. Batasi asupan daging merah, paling banyak dua takar per orang per minggu.

Daging merah mengandung lemak jenuh
Sebuah studi menemukan, perempuan dengan diabetes tipe 2 yang makan lebih banyak daging merah lebih berisiko lebih besar menderita penyakit jantung dibandingkan pasien diabetes yang makan lebih sedikit. Penelitian lain menunjukkan, semakin banyak daging merah yang dikonsumsi perempuan selama hampir sembilan tahun, risiko mereka menderita diabetes tipe 2 juga semakin besar.

Hindari bacon dan hot dog
Meskipun daging merah kelihatannya meningkatkan risiko diabetes, daging olahan (seperti bacon dan hot dog) justru meningkatkan risiko lebih besar lagi.

Pork loin (daging babi dari area punggung)

Pork loin merupakan daging yang sangat rendah lemak. Dua potong pork loin panggang (ditaburi dengan bawang putih dan jus lemon, atau cabe dengan bawang putih) hanya mengandung 129 kalori, dengan 16 gram protein sehat.

Tenderloin ayam
Masing-masing tenderloin mempunyai berat sekitar satu setengah hingga dua ons, sehingga memudahkan Anda mengontrol porsi. Dua tenderloin hampir setara dengan satu takar ukuran tiga ons. Tenderloin mudah dibumbui dan bisa digunakan dalam kebab atau ditumis dengan makanan lainnya.

Pilihlah dada ayam
Potongan daging rendah lemak dipadukan dengan roti whole grain dengan topping mustard dan bayam merupakan pilihan makan siang rendah kolesterol yang sehat. Makanan ini bisa menjadi pilihan jika Anda hendak makan daging yang rendah lemak jenuh. Pilihan kedua adalah ham dan daging sapi panggang. Tapi, pastikan hanya mengonsumsi dua potong daging dalam sandwich Anda.

Kedelai muda (edamame)

Kacang delai hijau yang masih muda ini bisa menjadi kudapan sehat. Cukup dikukus dan tambahkan sedikit garam. Selain itu, Anda bisa menambah kedelai ke dalam sup atau salad. Kacang kedelai mengandung lebih banyak protein dibandingkan daging sapi dan biasanya tidak mengandung lemak jenuh.

Ikan
Pastikan selalu menyediakan ikan segar dalam lemari pendingin Anda. Dengan begitu, Anda selalu mempunyai bahan untuk membuat makanan sehat kaya protein. (IK/OL-08)
http://www.mediaindonesia.com/mediahidupsehat/index.php/read/2010/05/12/2552/3/10-Sumber-Protein-Rendah-Lemak
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